Volume 24, Issue 6 (2022)                   JAST 2022, 24(6): 1385-1395 | Back to browse issues page


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1- Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Islamic Republic of Iran. , somayei.ranjbar@ut.ac.ir
2- Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Islamic Republic of Iran.
Abstract:   (962 Views)
Water hardness can negatively affect the efficiency of pesticides. This study aimed to determine the effect of water hardness and adjuvants added to spray solution on the efficiency of insecticides. Three insecticides, namely, malathion, acetamiprid, and spiromesifen, were mixed in well water samples at 1,869, 645, and 265 mg L-1 hardness, standard, and deionized water, and applied against the second instar nymph of Bemisia tabaci using leaf dip method. In another experiment, Zero-7 at 150 ppm and Arkan at 180 ppm as additives were added to water with 1869 and 645 mg L-1 hardness, separately. LC50 values showed that the toxicity of malathion, acetamiprid, and spiromesifen was 40, 157, and 84 times less in hard water (1,869 mg L-1 hardness) than deionized water. The efficacy of malathion, acetamiprid, and spiromesifen was 13, 65, and 39 times less when they were diluted in water with 645 mg L-1 hardness than deionized water. Malathion provided 37.28 and 18.59% greater toxicity when applied in hard water containing Zero-7 and Arkan than water without the adjuvants. The efficacy of acetamiprid was, respectively, 16.93 and 18.68% greater when it was applied in hard water containing Zero-7 and Arkan compared to water without the additives. Zero-7 and Arkan in hard water enhanced the efficacy of spiromesifen by 10.26 and 13.68% compared to water without adjuvants. Generally, the toxicity of the insecticides on B. tabaci was considerably reduced at the highest levels of water hardness. In contrast, adjuvants overcame the antagonistic effects of cations in hard water.
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Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Agricultural Economics/Agriculture Marketing and Supply Chains
Received: 2021/05/14 | Accepted: 2021/11/10 | Published: 2022/11/14

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