Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, pl. Grunwaldzki 24 A, 50-363 Wrocław, Poland.
Receive Date: 25 February 2016,
Revise Date: 28 July 2016,
Accept Date: 25 September 2016
The purpose of this research was to assess the influence of several orchard systems involving trees trained to different leader numbers on growth, cropping, and fruit quality of two apple cultivars. The study was conducted during 1994-2007 at the Fruit Experimental Station in Samotwór, next to Wrocław (south-western Poland). One-year-old trees of ‘Elstar’ and ‘Jonagold’ cultivars on the M.9 rootstock were planted in the spring 1994 using 3.5 m spacing between rows and a variable in-row spacing: 2.4 m (Mikado-four leaders), 1.8 m (Drilling-three leaders), 1.2 m (Tatura-two leaders), and 0.6 m (Güttingen-V-one leader). In this way, the number of leaders per hectare was almost the same, regardless of the system. The most vigorous growth occurred on the most sparsely planted trees under the Mikado system, whereas the Güttingen-V apple trees developed thinnest shoot systems. The bloom abundance registered in the 2004-2007 periods was more related to the year, rather than to the planting system. The 1995-2007 total per-tree yield was decreasing as the planting density increased. When yield per hectare was considered instead, the Güttingen-V system still produced the lowest. As the trees aged, the quality of apples diminished-possibly as a result of increasing tendency toward biennial bearing. In the last years of the study (2003-2007), the trees with the largest numbers of leaders, i.e. Mikado and Drilling, showed the most irregular yielding patterns. The orchard planting system had no significant influence on the fruit mean weight.
1. Barritt, B. H., Konishi, B. and Dilley, M. 2008. Performance of Four High Density Apple Orchard Systems with ‘Fuji’ and ‘Braeburn’. Acta Hort., 772: 389-394. 2. Buler, Z. and Mika, A. 2007. Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality in ‘Sampion’ Apple Trees Trained Using Four Different Training Systems: Hytec, Solen, Mikado and spindle. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res., 15: 117-124. 3. Choi, J. J., Gu, M., Choi, J. H., Han, J. H., Yim, S. H., Kim, Y. K., Jung, S. K. and Choi, H. S. 2014. Growth and Fruit Production of Asian Pear Trees Grown on Y-, T-, and Vase-Training Systems. Hort. Environ. Biotechnol., 55(1): 1-8. 4. Costes, E., Sinoquet, H., Kelner, J. J. and Godin, C. 2003. Exploring Within-Tree Architectural Development of Two Apple Tree Cultivars over 6 Years. Annal. Bot., 91: 91-104. 5. Dadashpour, A., Sadegh-Hasani, S. and Mirahmadi, S. F. 2011. Investigation of Some Vegetative and Reproductive Characteristics of Five Apple Cultivars in ‘Guttingen V’ System. J. Ornam. Hort. Plant., 1(2): 55-61. 6. Dadashpour, A., Shakouri, M. J., Shojaie, Z. F. and Dodangeh, M. R. 2012. Evaluation of Growth, Yield and Fruit Characteristics of Five Apple Cultivars on ‘Guttingen V’ System during 2006-2008. Indian J. Sci. Technol., 5(1): 1840-1843 . 7. Dorigoni, A., Lezzer, P., Dallabetta, N., Serra, S. and Musacchi S. 2011. Bi-axis: An Alternative to Slender Spindle for Apple Orchards. Acta Hort., 903: 581-588. 8. Gandev, S. and Dzhuvinov, V. 2014. Training and Pruning of Apple and Modern Trends of Development: An Overview. Turk. J. Agri. Nat. Sci., 1(Special Issue): 1264-1267. 9. Hampson, C. R., Quamme, H. A. and Brownlee R. T. 2002. Canopy Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of ‘Royal Gala’ Apple Trees Grown for Eight Years in Five Tree Training Systems. HortSci., 37(4): 627-631. 10. Hampson, C. R., Quamme, H. A., Kappel, F. and Brownlee R. T. 2004. Varying Density with Constant Rectangularity: II. Effects on Apple Tree Yield, Fruit Size, and Fruit Colour Development in Three Training Systems over Ten Years. HortSci., 39(3): 507-511. 11. Hassan, H. S. A., Sarrwy, S. M. A., Mostafa, E. A. M. and Dorria, M. A. 2010. Influence of Training Systems on Leaf Mineral Contents, Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of ‘Anna’ Apple Trees. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 6(4): 443-448. 12. Inomata, Y., Kudo, K., Wada, M., Masuda, T., Bessho, H. and Suzuki, K. 2004. The Influence of the Training System on Characteristics of Tree Growth, Fruit Productivity and Dry Matter Production of Columnar-type Apple Tree ‘Maypole’. Hort. Res. (Japan), 3(4): 387-392. 13. Jung, S. K. and Choi, H. S. 2010. Light Penetration, Growth and Fruit Productivity in ‘Fuji’ Apple Trees Trained to Four Growing Systems. Sci. Hort., 125(4): 672-678. 14. Kwon, Y. H., Park, Y. S. and Park, J. E. 2011. Changes of Fruit Characteristics by Fruit Load Control in ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Whangkeumbae’ Pear Trees on Y-trellis Training System. Korean J. Hort. Sci. Technol., 29(6): 523-530. 15. Lauri, P. E. 2009. Developing a New Paradigm for Apple Training. The Compact Fruit Tree, 42(2): 17-19. 16. Licznar-Małańczuk, M. 2006. Training System and Fruit Quality in the Apple Cultivar ‘Jonagold’. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res., 14(2): 213-218. 17. Monney, P. and Evéquoz, N. 1999. A Study of New Orchard Systems for Apple Trees. Rev. Suisse Viti. d’Arbori. d’Horti., 31(3): 153-158. 18. Ozkan, Y., Yildiz, K., Küçüker, E., Çekiç, Ç., Özgen M. and Akça Y. 2012. Early Performance of cv. Jonagold Apple on M.9 in Five Tree Training Systems. Hort. Sci. (Prague), 39(4): 158-163. 19. Platon, I.V. 2007. Preliminary Results on Planting System and Density in Apple. Acta Hort., 732: 471-473. 20. Porębski, S., Rzeźnicka, B. and Banach, P. 2008. Influence of the Type of Tree Crown on the Growth and Fruiting of ‘Florina’ Apple Trees. Zesz. Nauk. ISiK Skierniewice, 16: 13-19. 21. Robinson, T. L. 2000. V-shaped Apple Planting Systems. Acta Hort., 513: 337-347. 22. Robinson, T. L. 2007. Effects of Tree Density and Tree Shape on Apple Orchard Performance. Acta Hort., 732: 405-414. 23. Rutkowski, K., Kantorowicz-Bąk, M. and Pacholak, E. 2009. Effect of Different Tree Training Systems on Growth and Yielding of Two Apple Cultivars. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res., 17(1): 49-59. 24. Shafiq, M., Singh, Z. and Khan, A. S. 2014. Pre-harvest Ethephon Application and Training Systems Affect Colour Development, Accumulation of Flavonoids and Fruit Quality of ‘Cripps Pink’ Apple. Australian J. Crop Sci., 8(12): 1579-1589. 25. Sosna, I. 2004. Evaluation of Some Training Systems in Apple Orchard. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res., 12(Special Edition): 85-90. 26. Talaie, A., Shojaie-Saadee, M., Dadashpour A. and Asgari-Sarcheshmeh M. A. 2011. Fruit Quality in Five Apple Cultivars Trees Trained to Intensive Training System: Geneva Y-trellis. Genetika, 43(1): 153-161. 27. Uselis, N. 2003. Growth and Productivity of Dwarf Apple Trees in Bearing Orchards of Various Constructions. Sodininkyste ir Daržininkyste, 22(1): 3-13. 28. Uselis, N., Lanauskas, J. and Kviklys, D. 2007. Productivity and Fruit Quality of Apple Tree cv. ‘Alva’ under Different Orchard Constructions. Sodininkyste ir Daržininkyste, 26(4): 30-36. 29. Widmer, A. 2005. The Development of Güttingen-V-, Mikado and Drilling Growing Systems: An Overview. Obst- und Weinbau, 141(7): 14-16. 30. Widmer, A. and Krebs, C. 2001. Influence of Planting Density and Tree Form on Yield and Fruit Quality of ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Royal Gala’ Apples. Acta Hort., 557: 235-241.