1Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Maksima Gorkog 30, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.
2Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovića 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.
3Biogranum, Research and Development Center, Toplice Milana 20, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.
Receive Date: 04 September 2014,
Revise Date: 29 August 2016,
Accept Date: 24 September 2016
This study was aimed to assess the effects of excess boron on 59 genetically divergent wheat accessions and to identify those with high and stable yields under a range of soil boron concentrations. The second aim was to test the applicability of a laboratory technique performed at juvenile stages of development in estimating field boron tolerance. The study comprised a control and three boron treatments, applied as 50, 100 and 150 mg boric acid L-1 in laboratory, and 33.0, 67.0 and 133.0 kg boric acid ha-1 in field trial. Yield performance and stability were evaluated using biplots from sites regression model, while interrelationships among analyzed parameters were assessed using path coefficient analysis. Parameters were mostly decreased by excess boron when compared to the control (seedling root length, seedling dry weight, grain number per spike, grain yield, flag leaf area, leaf area duration and grain weight). Significant increase was noted for seedling boron concentration and content, percentage of sterile spikelets per spike and number of spikes per m2. Spike length, number of spikelets per spike, and anthesis date remained unaffected. The majority of accessions with high and stable yields were of local origin, so, we conclude that adaptation to environmental factors other than elevated soil boron plays an important role in overall field boron tolerance. The effects of excessive external boron on boron accumulation noted at the seedling stage in laboratory studies corresponded to its effects on yield in field.
1. Ali, Y., Atta, B. M., Akhter, J., Monneveux, P. and Lateef, Z. 2008. Genetic Variability, Association and Diversity Studies in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Germplasm. Pak. J. Bot., 40: 2087-2097. 2. Avci, M. and Akar, T. 2005. Severity and Spatial Distribution of Boron Toxicity in Barley Cultivated Areas of Central Anatolia and Transitional Zones. Turk. J. Agric. For., 29: 377-382. 3. Brdar-Jokanović, M., Maksimović, I., Kraljević-Balalić, M., Zeremski-Škorić, T., Kondić-Špika, A. and Kobiljski, B. 2013. Boron Concentration vs. Content as Criterion for Estimating Boron Tolerance in Wheat. J. Plant Nutr., 36: 470-480. 4. Brennan, R. F. and Adcock, K. G. 2004. Incidence of Boron Toxicity in Spring Barley in Southwestern Australia. J. Plant Nutr., 27: 411-425. 5. Cartwright, B., Zarcinas, B. A. and Mayfield, A. H. 1984. Toxic Concentrations of Boron in a Red-Brown Earth at Gladstone, South Australia. Aust. J. Soil Res., 22: 261-272. 6. Chantachume, Y., Smith, D., Hollamby, G. J., Paull, J. G. and Rathjen, A. J. 1995. Screening for Boron Tolerance in Wheat (T. aestivum) by Solution Culture in Filter Paper. Plant Soil, 177: 249-254. 7. Christensen, J. J. 1934. Non-Parasitic Leaf Spots of Barley. Phytopathol., 24: 726-742. 8. Corrêa, J. C., Esteves, J. A. F., Filho, H. G., Alves, E. and Ceccon, G. 2005. Boron Rates for Triticale and Wheat Crops. Sci. Agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.), 62: 145-149. 9. Coscun, Y., Olgunsoy, P., Karatas, N., Bulut, F. and Yarar, F. 2014. Mannitol Application Alleviates Boron Toxicity in Wheat Seedlings. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 41: 944-952. 10. Crossa, J. and Cornelius, P. L. 1997. Sites Regression and Shifted Multiplicative Model Clustering of Cultivar Trials Sites under Heterogeneity of Variances. Crop Sci., 37: 406-415. 11. Emebiri, L. C., Michael, P. and Moody, D. B. 2009. Enhanced Tolerance to Boron Toxicity in Two-rowed Barley by Marker-assisted Introgression of Favorable Alleles Derived from Sahara 3771. Plant Soil, 314: 77-85. 12. Emebiri, L. C. and Ogbonnaya, F. C. 2015. Exploring the Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat for Novel Sources of Tolerance to Excess Boron. Mol. Breed., 35: 68. 13. Ilyas, M., Mahmood, T., Ali, A., Babar, M., Rasheed, A. and Mujeeb-Kazi, A. 2015. Characterization of D-genome Diversity for Tolerance to Boron Toxicity in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat and In silico Analysis of Candidate Genes. Acta Physiol. Plant., 37: 17. 14. Jefferies, S. P., Pallotta, M. A., Paull, J. G., Karakousis, A., Kretschmer, J. M., Manning, S., Islam, A. K. M. R., Langridge, P. and Chalmers, K. J. 2000. Mapping and Validation of Chromosome Regions Conferring Boron Toxicity Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum). Theor. Appl. Genet., 101: 767-777. 15. Kalayci, M., Alkan, A., Çakmak, I., Bayramoğlu, O., Yilmaz, A., Aydin, M., Ozbek, V. and Ekiz, H. 1998. Studies on Differential Response of Wheat Cultivars to Boron Toxicity. Euphytica, 100: 123-129. 16. Kendal, E. 2015. Relationship between Chlorophyll and Other Features in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) Using SPAD and Biplot Analyses. J. Agr. Sci. Tech., 17: 1873-1886. 17. Kondić-Špika, A., Kobiljski, B., Marjanović, M. and Hristov, N. 2010. In vitro Evaluation of Boron Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes. Field Vegetable Crop. Res., 47: 85-91. 18. Kraljević-Balalić, M., Kastori, R. and Kobiljski, B. 2004. Variability and Gene Effects for Boron Concentration in Wheat Leaves. Proceedings of the 17th EUCARPIA General Congress, Genetic Variation for Plant Breeding, (Eds.): Vollmann J., Grausgruber H. and Ruckenbauer P. Tulln, Austria, 8-11 September 2004, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria, PP. 31-34. 19. Masood, S., Saleh, L., Witzel, K., Plieth, C. and Mühling, K. H. Ü. 2012. Determination of Oxidative Stress in Wheat Leaves as Influenced by Boron Toxicity and NaCl Stress. Plant Physiol. Biochem., 56: 56-61. 20. McDonald, G. K., Eglinton, J. K. and Barr, A. R. 2010. Assessment of the Agronomic Value of QTL on Chromosomes 2H and 4H linked to Tolerance to Boron Toxicity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Plant Soil, 326: 275-290. 21. Mertens, J., Van Laer, L., Salaets, P. and Smolders, E. 2011. Phytotoxic Doses of Boron in Contrasting Soils Depend on Soil Water Content. Plant Soil, 342: 73-82. 22. Padmanabhan, P., Babaoğlu, M. and Terry, N. 2012. A Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of the Extremely Boron Tolerant Plant Puccinellia distans with the Moderately Boron Tolerant Gypsophila arrostil. Plant Cell Rep., 31: 1407-1413. 23. Pang, Y., Li, L., Ren, F., Lu, P., Wei, P., Cai, J., Xin, L., Zhang, J., Chen, J. and Wang, X. 2010. Overexpression of the Tonoplast Aquaporin AtTIP5;1 Conferred Tolerance to Boron Toxicity in Arabidopsis. J. Genet. Genom., 37: 389-397. 24. Paull, J. G., Cartwright, B. and Rathjen, A. J. 1988. Responses of Wheat and Barley Genotypes to Toxic Concentrations of Soil Boron. Euphytica, 39: 137-144. 25. Rasoli, V., Farshadfar, E. and Ahmadi, J. 2015. Evaluation of Genotype×Environment Interaction of Grapevine Genotypes (Vitis vinifera L.) by Non Parametric Method. J. Agr. Sci. Tech., 17: 1279-1289. 26. Rehman, S., Park, T. I., Kim, Y. J., Seo, Z. W. and Yun, S. J. 2006. Inverse Relationship between Boron Toxicity Tolerance and Boron Contents of Barley Seed and Root. J. Plant Nutr., 29: 1779-1789. 27. Reid, R. 2010. Can We Really Increase Yields by Making Crop Plants Tolerant to Boron Toxicity? Plant Sci., 178: 9-11. 28. Röder, M. S., Wendehake, K., Korzun, V., Bredemeijer, G., Laborie, D., Bertrand, L., Isaac, P., Rendell, S., Jackson, J., Cooke, R. J., Vosman, B. and Ganal, M. W. 2002. Construction and Analysis of a Microsatellite-based Database of European Wheat Varieties. Theor. Appl. Genet., 106: 67-73. 29. Roessner, U., Patterson, J. H., Forbes, M. G., Fincher, G. B., Langridge, P. and Bacic, A. 2006. An iInvestigation of Boron Toxicity in Barley Using Metabolomics. Plant Physiol., 142: 1087-1101. 30. Schnurbusch, T., Hayes, J. and Sutton, T. 2010. Boron Toxicity Tolerance in Wheat and Barley: Australian Perspectives. Breed. Sci., 60: 297-304. 31. Talebi, R., Fayyaz, F. and Naji, A. M. 2010. Genetic Variation and Interrelationships of Agronomic Characteristics in Durum Wheat under Two Constructing Water Regimes. Braz. Arch. Biol. Techn., 53: 785-791. 32. Wimmer, M. A. and Goldbach, H. E. 2012. Boron-and-Salt Interactions in Wheat are Affected by Boron Supply. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 175: 171-179. 33. Yagdi, K. 2009. Path Coefficient Analysis of Some Yield Components in Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Pak. J. Bot., 41: 745-751. 34. Yan, W. and Tinker, N. A. 2006. Biplot Analysis of Multi-environment Trial Data: Principles and Applications. Can. J. Plant Sci., 86: 623-645. 35. Yau, S. K. and Ryan, J. 2008. Boron Toxicity Tolerance in Crops: A Viable Alternative to Soil Amelioration. Crop Sci., 48, 854-865.