1Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
2Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43400, Malaysia.
3Farm Technology Group, Wageningen University, P. O. Box: 16, NL-6700AH Wageningen, The Netherlands.
4Institute AgroPolis, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Campus Tembila, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia.
Receive Date: 15 July 2015,
Revise Date: 23 April 2016,
Accept Date: 26 June 2016
Net-screen covered greenhouses operating on natural ventilation are used as a sustainable approach for closed-field cultivation of fruits and vegetables and to eliminate insect passage and the subsequent production damage. The objective of this work was to develop a real-time assessment framework for evaluating air-temperature inside an insect-proof net-screen greenhouse in tropical lowlands of Malaysia prior to cultivation of tomato. Mathematical description of a growth response model was implemented and used in a computer application. A custom-designed data acquisition system was built for collecting 6 months of air-temperature data, during July to December 2014. For each measured air-Temperature (T), an optimality degree, denoted by , was calculated with respect to different light conditions (sun, cloud, night) and different growth stages. Interactive three-dimensional plots were generated to demonstrate variations in values due to different hours and days in a growth season. Results showed that air temperature was never less than 25% optimal for early growth, and 51% for vegetative to mature fruiting stages. The average in the entire 6 months was between 65 and 75%. The presented framework allows tomato growers to automatically collect and process raw air temperature data and to simulate growth responses at different growth stages and light conditions. The software database can be used to track and record values from any greenhouse with different structure design, covering materials, cooling system, and growing seasons and to contribute to knowledge-based decision support systems and energy balance models.
1. Abdel-Ghany, A. M., Al-Helal, I. M., Picuno, P. and Shady, M. R. 2016. Modified Plastic Net-Houses as Alternative Agricultural Structures for Saving Energy and Water in Hot and Sunny Regions. Renewable Ener., 93: 332-339. 2. Adams, S. R., Cockshull, K. E. and Cave, C. R. J. 2001. Effect of Temperature on the Growth and Development of Tomato Fruits. Ann. Bot., 88: 869-877. 3. Alvarez, A. J., Oliva, R. M. and Valera, D. L. 2012. Software for the Geometric Characterization of Insect-proof Screens. Comput. Electron. Agric., 82: 134–144. 4. Dayan, J., Dayan, E., Strassberg, Y. and Presnov, E. 2004. Simulation and Control of Ventilation Rates in Greenhouses. Math. Comput. Simulation, (MATCOM), 65(1): pages 3-17 5. Desmarais, G. and Vigaya Raghavan, G. S. 1997. Thermal Characteristics of Screenhouse Configurations in a West-African Tropical Climate. Acta Hortic., 443: 39-46 6. Dieleman, J. 2011. Energy Saving: from Engineering to Crop Management. Acta Hortic., 893: 65–74. 7. El-Attal, A.H. 1995. Decision Model for Hydroponic Tomato Production (HYTOMOD) Using Utility Theory. PhD Dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 8. Fatnassi, H., Boulard, T. and Bouirden, L. 2003. Simulation of Climatic Conditions in Full-Scale Greenhouse Fitted with Insect-Proof Screens. Agric. For. Meteorol., 118: 97–111. 9. Fatnassi, H., Boulard, T. and Bouirden, L. 2013. Development, Validation and Use of a Dynamic Model for Simulate the Climate Conditions in a Large Scale Greenhouse Equipped with Insect-Proof Nets. Comput. Electron. Agric., 98: 54–61. 10. Fatnassi, H., Boulard, T., Poncet, C. and Chave, M. 2006. Optimization of Greenhouse Insect Screening with Computational Fluid Dynamics. Biosyst. Eng., 93: 301–312. 11. Gruber, J. K., Guzmán, J.L., Rodríguez, F., Bordons, C., Berenguel, M., Sánchez, J. a., 2011. Nonlinear MPC Based on a Volterra Series Model for Greenhouse Temperature Control Using Natural Ventilation. Control Eng. Pract., 19: 354–366. 12. Ivey, J., Keener, H. M. and Short, T. H. 2000. Internet Decision Support for Hydroponic Greenhouse Tomato Production. Proceedings of IFAC Conference on Modeling and Control in Agriculture, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 13. Jones, J. and Benton, Jr. 2007. Tomato Plant Culture: In the Field, Greenhouse, and Home Garden. Second Edition, CRC Press. Taylor and Francis Group, LLC, Boca Raton, FL. 14. Katsoulas, N., Bartzanas, T., Boulard, T., Mermier and M. Kittas, C., 2006. Effect of Vent Openings and Insect Screens on Greenhouse Ventilation. Biosyst. Eng., 93: 427–436. 15. Khoshnevisan, B., Rafiee, S., Iqbal, J., Omid, M., Badrul, N. and Wahab, A. W. A. 2015a. A Comparative Study between Artificial Neural Networks and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems for Modeling Energy Consumption in Greenhouse Tomato Production: A Case Study in Isfahan Province. J. Agri. Sci. Tech., 17: 49–62. 16. Khoshnevisan, B., Rafiee, S., Omid, M., Mousazadeh, H., Shamshirband, S. and Ab Hamid, S. H. 2015b. Developing a Fuzzy Clustering Model for Better Energy Use in Farm Management Systems. Renew. Sust. Ener. Rev., 48: 27-34. 17. Kittas, C., Karamanis, M. and Katsoulas, N., 2005. Air Temperature Regime in a Forced Ventilated Greenhouse with Rose Crop. Ener. Build., 37(8): 807–812. 18. López-Martínez, A., Valera, D. L., Molina-Aiz, F. D., Peña, A. and Marin, P. 2013. Field Analysis of the Deterioration after Some Years of Use of Four Insect-proof Screens Utilized in Mediterranean Greenhouses. Span. J. Agric. Res., 11(4): 958-967. 19. Lopez-Martinez, A., Valera-Martinez, D. L., Molina-Aiz, F., Peña-Fernandez, A. and Marin-Membrive, P. 2014. Microclimate Evaluation of a New Design of Insect-proof Screens in a Mediterranean Greenhouse. Span. J. Agric. Res., 12(2): 338–352. 20. Molina-Aiz, F. D., Valera, D. L., Peña, A. A., Gil, J. A. and Lopez, A. 2009. A Study of Natural Ventilation in an Almería-type Greenhouse with Insect Screens by Means of Tri-sonic Anemometry. Biosyst. Eng., 104: 224–242. 21. Möller, M., Tanny, J., Li, Y. and Cohen, S. 2004. Measuring and Predicting Evapotranspiration in an Insect-proof Screenhouse. Agric. For. Meteorol., 127: 35–51. 22. Muñoz, P., Montero, J. I., Antón, A. and Giuffrida, F. 1999. Effect of Insect-proof Screens and Roof Openings on Greenhouse Ventilation. J. Agr. Eng. Res., 73: 171-178. 23. Ntinas, G. K., Fragos, V. P. and Nikita-Martzopoulou, C. 2014. Thermal Analysis of a Hybrid Solar Energy Saving System inside a Greenhouse. Ener. Convers. Manag., 81: 428-439. 24. Pahlavan, R., Omid, M. and Akram, A. 2012. The Relationship between Energy Inputs and Crop Yield in Greenhouse Basil Production. J. Agri. Sci. Tech., 14: 1243–1253. 25. Rigakis, N., Katsoulas, N., Teitel, M., Bartzanas, T. and Kittas, C. 2015. A Simple Model for Ventilation Rate Determination in Screenhouses. Ener. Build., 87: 293-301. 26. Sato, S., Peet, M. M. and Thomas, J. F. 2000: Physiological Factors Limit Fruit Set of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under Chronic High Temperature Stress. Plant Cell Environ., 23: 719-726. 27. Sethi, V. P., Dubey, R. K. and Dhath, A. S. 2009. Design and Evaluation of Modified Screen Net House for Off-season Vegetable Raising in Composite Climate. Ener. Convers. Manag., 50: 3112–3128. 28. Shamshiri, R., Wan Ismail, W. I. and Desa, A. 2014a. Experimental Evaluation of Air Temperature, Relative Humidity and Vapor Pressure Deficit in Tropical Lowland Plant Production Environments. Adv. Environ. Biol., 8(22): 5-13. 29. Shamshiri, R., Wan Ismail, W. I. and Desa, A. 2014b. Adaptive Analysis Framework for Controlled Environments Plant Production, Case Study in Tropical Lowland Malaysia. Paper Number: 1855835, In proceeding of ASABE and CSBE/SCGAB Annual International Meeting Conference, 13-16 July, 2014, Montreal, Quebec Canada, PP. 62-79. (doi: 10.13031/aim.20141855835) 30. Shilo, E., Teitel, M., Mahrer, Y. and Boulard, T. 2004. Air-flow Patterns and Heat Fluxes in Roof-ventilated Multi-span Greenhouse with Insect-proof Screens. Agric. For. Meteorol., 122(1–2): 3–20. 31. Short, T. H., Attal, A. E., Keener, H. M. and Fynn., R. P. 1998. A Decision System for Hydroponic Greenhouse Tomato Production. Acta Hortic., 45: 493-504. 32. Short, T. H., Ivey, J. and Keener, H. M. 2001. Development of an Interactive Hydroponic Tomato Production Model for Internet Users. Paper Number 018014, ASAE, St. Joseph, USA. 33. Short, T. H., Draper, C. M. and Donnell, M. A. 2005. Web-based Decision Support System for Hydroponic Vegetable Production. Acta Hortic., 691: 867-870. 34. Soni, P., Salokhe, V. M. and Tantau, H. J. 2005. Effect of Screen Mesh Size on Vertical Temperature Distribution in Naturally Ventilated Tropical Greenhouses. Biosyst. Eng., 92: 469–482. 35. Tamimi, E., Kacira, M., Choi, C. and An, L. 2013. Analysis of Climate Uniformity in a Naturally Ventilated Greenhouse Equipped with High Pressure Fogging System. Trans. ASABE, 56(3): 1241-1254. 36. Tanny, J., Cohen, S. and Teitel, M. 2003. Screenhouse Microclimate and Ventilation: An Experimental Study. Biosys. Eng., 84: 331-341. 37. Teitel, M. 2007. The Effect of Screened Openings on Greenhouse Microclimate. Agric. For. Meteorol., 143: 159–175. 38. Villarreal-Guerrero, F., Kacira, M., Fitz-Rodríguez, E., Linker, R., Kubota, C., Giacomelli, G. A. and Arbel, A. 2012. Simulated Performance of a Greenhouse Cooling Control Strategy with Natural Ventilation and Fog Cooling. Biosys. Eng., 111: 217-228. 39. Xu, J., Li, Y., Wang, R.Z., Liu, W. and Zhou, P. 2015. Experimental Performance of Evaporative Cooling Pad Systems in Greenhouses in Humid Subtropical Climates. Appl. Ener., 138: 291–301. 40. Zhao, Y., Teitel, M. and Arak, M. 2001. Vertical Temperature and Humidity Gradients in a Naturally Ventilated Greenhouse. J. Agric. Eng. Res., 78: 431-436.